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Philippics 3 and 4. Answer to Philip's Letter. Philip's Letter. On Organization. On the Navy-boards. For the Liberty of the Rhodians. For the P. Pro Quinctio. Pro Roscio Amerino. Pro Roscio Comoedo. On the Agrarian Law. Jewish Antiquities, Volume I: Books Lysias c. Of a much larger number about thirty complete speeches by him survive.

Fluent, simple, and graceful in style yet vivid in description, they suggest a passionate partisan who was also a gentle, humorous man. Sayings of Romans. Sayings of Spartans. The Ancient Customs of the Spartans. Sayings of Spartan Women. Bravery of Women. On the Unchangeableness of God. On Husbandry. Concerning Noah's Work As a Planter. On Drunkenness. On Sobriety. Lives of the Abbots. Letter to Egbert. Histories: Books Annals: Books De Spectaculis. Minucius Felix: Octavius. Tertullian c. Octavius by Minucius , an early Christian writer of unknown date, is a debate between belief and unbelief that depicts Roman religion and society.

On Architecture , completed by Vitruvius sometime before 27 CE and the only work of its kind to survive antiquity, serves not professionals but readers who want to understand architecture. Topics include town planning, building materials, temples, the architectural orders, houses, pavements, mosaics, water supply, measurements, and machines.

Pro Milone. In Pisonem. Pro Scauro. Pro Fonteio. Pro Rabirio Postumo. Pro Marcello. Pro Ligario. Pro Rege Deiotaro. In Fasti , Ovid 43 BCE—17 CE sets forth explanations of the festivals and sacred rites that were noted on the Roman calendar, and relates in graphic detail the legends attached to specific dates. The poem is an invaluable source of information about religious practices. De Vita Beata. De Otio. De Tranquillitate Animi.

De Brevitate Vitae. De Consolatione ad Polybium. De Consolatione ad Helviam. Philostratus the Elder, Imagines. Philostratus the Younger, Imagines. Callistratus, Descriptions. Sixty-five descriptions, ostensibly of paintings in a gallery at Naples, are credited to an Elder Philostratus born c. Fourteen descriptions of statues in stone or bronze attributed to Callistratus were probably written in the fourth century CE.

Dio Chrysostomus c. What survives of his works make him prominent in the revival of Greek literature in the late first and early second century CE. The Greek poetry of the seventh to the fifth century BCE that we call elegy was composed primarily for banquets and convivial gatherings. Its subject matter consists of almost any topic, excluding only the scurrilous and obscene.

The poetry of the seventh to the fifth centuries BCE that the Greeks called iambic seems connected with cult songs used in religious festivals, but its purpose is unclear. The Little Carthaginian. The Rope. On the Confusion of Tongues. On the Migration of Abraham.

Who Is the Heir of Divine Things? On Mating with the Preliminary Studies. The letters of Saint Jerome c. The Two Gallieni. The Thirty Pretenders. The Deified Claudius. The Deified Aurelian. Firmus, Saturninus, Proculus and Bonosus. Carus, Carinus and Numerian. This is the first of two volumes giving a selection of Greek papyri relating to private and public business.

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Most were found in rubbish heaps or remains of ancient houses or in tombs in Egypt. From such papyri we get much information about administration and social and economic conditions in Egypt, and about native Egyptian, Greek, Roman and Byzantine law, as well as glimpses of ordinary life. This volume contains: Agreements 71 examples ; these concern marriage, divorce, adoption, apprenticeship, sales, leases, employment of labourers.

Receipts Wills 6. Deed of disownment. Personal letters from men and women, young and old Memoranda 2. Invitations 5. Orders for payment 2. Agenda 2. Accounts and inventories Questions of oracles 3. Christian prayers 2. A Gnostic charm. Horoscopes 2. Letters, Volume IV: Letters On Greek Literature. The three surviving works by Sextus Empiricus c.

Their value as a source for the history of thought is especially that they represent development and formulation of former skeptic doctrines. On Flight and Finding. On the Change of Names. On Dreams. It also echoes poets, especially Virgil, and employs techniques traditional in Latin epic. Library of History, Volume I: Books Books 1—5 and 11—20 survive complete, the rest in fragments. Greek papyri relating to private and public business in Egypt from before BCE to the eighth century CE inform us about administration; social and economic conditions in Egypt; Egyptian, Greek, Roman, and Byzantine law.

They also offer glimpses of ordinary life. Elegies on Maecenas. Calpurnius Siculus. Laus Pisonis. Einsiedeln Eclogues. Duff, J. Wight Duff, Arnold M. Works such as those of the mime-writer Publilius Syrus , who flourished c. Athenian Constitution. Eudemian Ethics. Virtues and Vices. Gaius Valerius Flaccus flourished c. Valerius effectively rehandles the story already told by Apollonius Rhodius , recalls Virgilian language and thought, displays learning, and alludes to contemporary Rome. Metaphysics, Volume II: Books Magna Moralia.

On the Soul. Parva Naturalia. On Breath. In Secret History , the Byzantine historian Procopius late fifth century to after CE attacks the sixth century CE emperor Justinian and empress Theodora and alleges their ruinous effect on the Roman empire. Celsus , a layman, provides in On Medicine more information about the condition of medical science up to his own time probably first century CE than any other author. Book 1 is on Greek schools of medicine and dietetics; Book 2 on prognosis, diagnosis, and general therapeutics; Book 3 on internal ailments; Book 4 on local bodily diseases.

Epic Fragments. Quintus Ennius — , widely regarded as the father of Roman literature, was instrumental in creating a new Roman literary identity, domesticating the Greek forms of epic and drama, and pursuing a range of other literary and intellectual pursuits. He inspired major developments in Roman religion, social organization, and popular culture. Extant works by Sidonius born c. Against Androtion.

Against Aristocrates. Against Timocrates. Against Aristogeiton 1 and 2. Ammianus c. History of Rome, Volume X: Books The Passing of Peregrinus. The Runaways. Toxaris or Friendship. The Dance. The Mistaken Critic. The Parliament of the Gods. The Tyrannicide.

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Book 5 is on treatment by drugs of general diseases, Book 6 on treatment by drugs of local diseases. Greek Questions. Greek and Roman Parallel Stories. On the Fortune of the Romans. On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander. Moralia, Volume V: Isis and Osiris. The E at Delphi. The Obsolescence of Oracles. Minor Works: On Colours. On Things Heard. On Plants. On Marvellous Things Heard. Mechanical Problems. On Indivisible Lines. The Situations and Names of Winds. On Melissus, Xenophanes, Gorgias.

Antiphon of Athens, born c. Of his fifteen extant works three concern real murder cases. The others are academic exercises. Andocides of Athens, born c. Of his four extant speeches, Against Alcibiades is doubtful. Against Physicists. Against Ethicists. Extant early Latin writings from the seventh or sixth to the first century BCE include epic, drama, satire, translation and paraphrase, hymns, stage history and practice, and other works by Ennius , Caecilius , Livius Andronicus , Naevius , Pacuvius , Accius , Lucilius , and other anonymous authors; the Twelve Tables of Roman law; archaic inscriptions.

Although Problems is an accretion of multiple authorship over several centuries, it offers a fascinating technical view of Peripatetic method and thought. Problems, Volume II: Books Rhetoric to Alexander. Roman Antiquities, Volume I: Books Of the twenty books from the earliest times to BCE we have the first nine complete; most of 10 and 11; extracts; and an epitome of the whole.

On the Decalogue. On the Special Laws, Books Moralia, Volume X: Love Stories. To an Uneducated Ruler. Precepts of Statecraft. On Monarchy, Democracy, and Oligarchy. That We Ought Not to Borrow. Parts of Animals. Movement of Animals. Progression of Animals. In Catilinam Pro Murena. Pro Sulla. Pro Flacco. On Interpretation. Prior Analytics. Three-Dollar Day. The Tale of a Traveling-Bag. The Twelve Tables. Topics included are the mathematics and metrology of the universe; world geography and ethnography; human anthropology and physiology; zoology; botany, agriculture, and horticulture; medicine; minerals, fine arts, and gemstones.

Excerpta Valesiana. Greek mathematics from the sixth century BCE to the fourth century CE is represented by the work of, e. On Moral Virtue. On the Control of Anger. On Tranquility of Mind. On Brotherly Love. On Affection for Offspring. On the Special Laws, Book 4. On the Virtues. On Rewards and Punishments. In On Buildings , the Byzantine historian Procopius late fifth century to after CE describes the churches, public buildings, fortifications, and bridges Justinian erected throughout his empire, from the Church of St.

Sophia in Constantinople to city walls at Carthage. The work is richly informative about architecture of the sixth century CE.

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On the Orator: Book 3. On Fate. Stoic Paradoxes. Divisions of Oratory. Eight works or parts of works were ascribed to Manetho , a third century BCE Egyptian, all on history and religion and all apparently in Greek. In Neaeram. Fragments of ancient literature, from the seventh to the third century BCE, found on papyri in Egypt include examples of tragedy; satyr drama; Old, Middle, and New Comedy; mime; lyric, elegiac, iambic, and hexametric poetry. Columella first century CE included Cato and Varro among many sources for On Agriculture , but his personal experience was paramount.

Written in prose except for the hexameters on horticulture of Book 10, the work is richly informative about country life in first century CE Italy. Every Good Man is Free. On the Contemplative Life. On the Eternity of the World. Against Flaccus. Apology for the Jews. On Providence. Jewish Antiquities, Volume V: Books History of Alexander, Volume I: Books The first two of ten books have not survived and material is missing from books 5, 6, and Natural History, Volume V: Books Roman Antiquities, Volume V: Books Concerning the Team of Horses.

Against Callimachus. Against Lochites. Against Euthynus. Erotic Essay. On the Embassy to Gaius. General Indexes. Alciphron, Aelian, and Philostratus: The Letters.

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The fictitious, highly literary Letters of Alciphron second century CE are mostly to invented characters. The Letters of Farmers by Aelian c. The Erotic Epistles of Philostratus perhaps born c. Library of History, Volume V: Books On Invention. The Best Kind of Orator. Daily Round. Divinity of Christ. Origin of Sin. Fight for Mansoul. Against Symmachus 1. Prudentius born CE used allegory and classical Latin verse forms in service of Christianity.

Library of History, Volume X: Books Lycurgus was with Demosthenes in the anti-Macedonian faction. But Dinarchus favored an oligarchy under Macedonian control and Demades supported the Macedonian cause too. Against Symmachus 2. Crowns of Martyrdom. Scenes From History. On Sophistical Refutations. On Coming-to-be and Passing Away. On the Cosmos. Alexandrian War. African War. Spanish War. African War and Spanish War are detailed accounts clearly by officers who had shared in the campaigns. But most recent editors attribute it to an unknown author.

Julius Obsequens. On Compliancy. On Envy and Hate. On Praising Oneself Inoffensively. On the Delays of the Divine Vengeance. On the Sign of Socrates. On Exile. Consolation to His Wife. On the Principle of Cold. Beasts Are Rational. On the Eating of Flesh.

On Trees. City of God, Volume V: Books Natural History, Volume X: Books Aetia, Iambi, Hecale and Other Fragments. Hero and Leander. Callimachus Musaeus Trypanis, C. Gelzer, T. Whitman, Cedric H. Hero and Leander by Musaeus fifth or sixth century CE is a short epic poem. Dialogue on Love. Causes of Natural Phenomena. Reply to Colotes in Defence of the Other Philosophers. Is "Live Unknown" a Wise Precept? On Music. How to Write History. The Dipsads. Herodotus or Aetion. Zeuxis or Antiochus. A Slip of the Tongue in Greeting. Apology for the "Salaried Posts in Great Houses. A Conversation with Hesiod.

The Scythian or The Consul. Hermotimus or. Dialogues of the Dead. Dialogues of the Sea-Gods. Dialogues of the Gods. Dialogues of the Courtesans. Lucius or The Ass. Dicta Catonis.

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  5. Rutilius Namatianus. In Tetrabiblos , a core text in the history of astrology, the preeminent ancient astronomer Ptolemy c. From the same period come the lively fables in Latin verse written by Phaedrus , which satirize social and political life in Augustan Rome. History of Animals, Volume I: Books Ennead I.

    His writings were edited by his disciple Porphyry , who published them sometime between and CE in six sets of nine treatises each Enneads , with a biography of his master in which he also explains his editorial principles. In On the Characteristics of Animals , Aelian c. Pro Caelio. De Provinciis Consularibus. Pro Balbo. Natural Questions, Volume I: Books Seneca c. In Book 1 he discusses fires in the atmosphere; in 2, lightning and thunder; in 3, bodies of water.

    Libanius — CE , who was one of the last great publicists and teachers of Greek paganism, has much to tell us about the tumultuous world of the fourth century CE. His works include Orations , the first of which is an autobiography, and Letters. History of the Empire, Volume I: Books The History of Herodian born c. Ancient Testimonia. Eusebius's Reply to Hierocles. Unidentified Fragments. Bacchylides wrote masterful choral poetry of many types. Letters to Quintus and Brutus. Letter Fragments. Letter to Octavian. Handbook of Electioneering. Two invective speeches linked with Cicero are probably anonymous exercises.

    The Letter to Octavian likely dates from the third or fourth century CE. The Handbook of Electioneering was said to be written by Quintus to Cicero. Declamations, Volume I: Controversiae, Books Seneca the Elder? Dionysius of Halicarnassus , born c. They constitute an important development from the somewhat mechanical techniques of rhetorical handbooks to more sensitive criticism of individual authors. Letters to Ammaeus and Pompeius. Cornelius Nepos c.

    Extant are parts of his De Viris Illustribus , including biographies of mostly Greek military commanders and of two Latin historians, Cato and Atticus. In Astronomica first century CE , the earliest extant treatise we have on astrology, Manilius provides an account of celestial phenomena and the signs of the Zodiac. He also gives witty character sketches of persons born under particular constellations. In the latter, Theophrastus turns to plant physiology.

    Books 1 and 2 are concerned with generation, sprouting, flowering and fruiting, and the effects of climate. Diseases 3. Internal Affections. In Books 3 and 4, Theophrastus studies cultivation and agricultural methods. In Books 5 and 6, he discusses plant breeding; diseases and other causes of death; and distinctive flavours and odours. Letters Places in Man. Prorrhetic Use of Liquids. Haemorrhoids and Fistulas. Children of Heracles. Nemean Odes.

    Isthmian Odes. Wasps satirizes Athenian enthusiasm for jury service. Peace is a rollicking attack on war-makers. Valerius Maximus compiled his handbook of notable deeds and sayings in the reign of Tiberius 14—37 CE. Homeric Hymns. Homeric Apocrypha. Lives of Homer. Genealogical epic of that archaic era includes poems that create prehistories for Corinth and Samos. These works are an important source of mythological record. Thebaid, Volume II: Books The Lesser Declamations perhaps date from the second century CE and are perhaps derived from Quintilian. The collection originally consisted of sample cases for legal training.

    Comments and suggestions the instructor adds to his model speeches for fictitious court cases offer insight into Roman law and education. Over forty of his plays were read in antiquity, from which nearly a thousand fragments survive. The Shield. Catalogue of Women. Other Fragments. Though attributed to Hesiod eighth or seventh century BC in antiquity, the Catalogue of Women , a presentation of legendary Greek heroes and episodes according to maternal genealogy; The Shield , a counterpoint to the Iliadic shield of Achilles; and certain poems that survive as fragments were likely not composed by Hesiod himself.

    Fragments: Oedipus-Chrysippus. Hellenistic Collection: Philitas. Alexander of Aetolia. Works by authors such as Philitas of Cos , Alexander of Aetolia , Hermesianax of Colophon , Euphorion of Chalcis and, especially, Parthenius of Nicaea , who composed the mythograpical Sufferings in Love , represent rich inventiveness in Hellenistic prose and poetry from the fourth to the first century BCE.

    Coan Prenotions. Anatomical and Minor Clinical Writings. Cast in the form of a dialogue it treats diverse topics while showcasing Virgil as master of all human knowledge, from diction to religion. Cast in the form of a dialogue, it treats diverse topics while showcasing Virgil as master of all human knowledge, from diction to religion.

    The era of Old Comedy c. But the work of many other poets, including Cratinus and Eupolis , the other members, with Aristophanes, of the canonical Old Comic Triad, survives in fragments. Method of Medicine, Volume I: Books In Method of Medicine , Galen — CE provides a comprehensive and influential account of the principles of treating injury and disease.

    Enlivening the detailed case studies are many theoretical and polemical discussions, acute social commentary, and personal reflections. In The Learned Banqueters, Athenaeus describes a series of dinner parties at which the guests quote extensively from Greek literature. The work which dates to the very end of the second century AD is amusing reading and of extraordinary value as a treasury of quotations from works now lost.

    Nature of the Child. Diseases 4. Nature of Women and Barrenness. Discourses 1 and 2. Heroicus is a vineyard conversation about the beauty, continuing powers, and worship of the Homeric heroes. Gymnasticus is the sole surviving ancient treatise on sports, which reshapes conventional ideas about the athletic body. Fragments of the Histories. Letters to Caesar. In this volume, John T. Ramsey has freshly edited the Histories and the two pseudo-Sallustian Letters to Caesar , completing the Loeb Classical Library edition of his works.

    On the Constitution of the Art of Medicine. The Art of Medicine. A Method of Medicine to Glaucon. In the three works in this volume, On the Constitution of the Art of Medicine , The Art of Medicine , and A Method of Medicine to Glaucon , the physician, philosopher, scientist, and medical historian Galen of Pergamum covers fundamental aspects of his practice in a lucid and engaging style.

    Volume II of the nine-volume Loeb edition of Early Greek Philosophy presents preliminary chapters on ancient doxography, the cosmological and moral background, and includes the early Ionian thinkers Pherecydes, Thales, Anaximander, and Anaximenes. Aelius Aristides —after , among the most versatile authors of the Second Sophistic and an important figure in the transmission of Hellenism, produced speeches and lectures, declamations on historical themes, polemical works, prose hymns, and essays on a wide variety of subjects.

    Apuleius born ca. In his treatises Hygiene , Thrasybulus , and On Exercise with a Small Ball , Galen of Pergamum addresses topics of preventive medicine, health, and wellness that continue to resonate with practices of modern doctors and physical therapists. Hygiene, Volume II: Books 5—6. On Exercise with a Small Ball. Minor Works. A lexicon of therapeutic agents is included.

    Menander Rhetor. Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Ars Rhetorica. The instructional treatises of Menander Rhetor and the Ars Rhetorica , deriving from the schools of rhetoric that flourished in the Greek East from the 2nd through 4th centuries AD, provide a window into the literary culture, educational practices, and social concerns of these Greeks under Roman rule, in both public and private life.

    Based on the critical edition of Malcovati, this three-volume Loeb edition of Roman Republican oratory begins with Ap. Claudius Caecus — BC and with the exceptions of Cato the Elder and Cicero includes all individuals for whom speech-making is attested and for whose speeches quotations, testimonia, or historiographic recreations survive. Core Values of American History. Here, he discusses the th anniversary o …. The digital Loeb Classical Library loebclassics.

    Daniel Schwartz, author of Ghetto: The History of a Word , wrote at Time about the use of the term to describe heavily segregated urban areas in the United States ; Literary Hub published an excerpt from the book. Join Our Mailing List. Roman History, Volume I: Books Suppliant Women. Heracles Euripides Kovacs, David Euripides c.

    Ion Euripides Kovacs, David Euripides c. Orestes Euripides Kovacs, David Euripides c. Medea Euripides Kovacs, David Euripides c. Elegies Propertius Goold, G. Didache Ehrman, Bart D. Misopogon Julian Wright, Wilmer C. Caligula Suetonius Rolfe, J. Dialogue on Oratory Tacitus Hutton, M. Peterson, W. On Ends Cicero Rackham, H. Persian War Procopius Dewing, H. Philosophies for Sale Lucian Harmon, A. Olympian Odes. Works and Days. Testimonia Hesiod Most, Glenn W.

    Phaedra Seneca Fitch, John G. Aeneid: Books Virgil Fairclough, H. Rushton Virgil 70—19 BCE was a poet of immense virtuosity and influence. Appendix Vergiliana Virgil Fairclough, H. Book 5: Erotic Epigrams Paton, W. Gregory the Theologian Paton, W. Nicomachean Ethics Aristotle Rackham, H.

    Euripides (Mahaffy)/Chapter 1 - Wikisource, the free online library

    Rand, E. Tester, S. Octavia Seneca Fitch, John G. Vandalic War Procopius Dewing, H. Anabasis Xenophon Brownson, Carleton L. Juvenal and Persius Juvenal Persius Braund, Susanna Morton Bite and wit characterize two seminal and stellar authors in the history of satirical writing, Persius 34—62 CE and Juvenal writing about sixty years later. Speeches Aeschines Adams, C. Gothic War Procopius Dewing, H.

    The Library, Volume I: Books Epitome Apollodorus Frazer, James G. Mair, G. Discourses, Books Epictetus Oldfather, W. Pane Claudian Platnauer, M. Rape of Proserpina Claudian Platnauer, M. Eumenides Aeschylus Sommerstein, Alan H. Nutriment Hippocrates Jones, W. Dentition Hippocrates Jones, W. Mochlicon Hippocrates Withington, E. Ex Ponto Ovid Wheeler, A. On Divination Cicero Falconer, W. Vince, J. Fragments Julian Wright, Wilmer C. Pro Plancio Cicero Watts, N. Fragments Polybius Paton, W. Olson, S.

    Douglas For this six-volume edition of The Histories , W. Euthydemus Plato Lamb, W. Gorgias Plato Lamb, W. Apology Xenophon Marchant, E. Todd, O. General Index Thucydides Smith, C. McElwain, Mary B. Knights Aristophanes Henderson, Jeffrey Aristophanes c. Wealth Aristophanes Henderson, Jeffrey Aristophanes c. Constitution of the Athenians Xenophon Marchant, E. Bowersock, G. The Life. Against Apion Josephus Thackeray, H.

    Ormerod, H. Philippics Cicero Shackleton Bailey, D. Art of Rhetoric Aristotle Freese, J. Rushton The poetry of Horace born 65 BCE is richly varied, its focus moving between public and private concerns, urban and rural settings, Stoic and Epicurean thought. Epinomis Plato Lamb, W. Isaeus Isaeus Forster, E. Douglas In The Learned Banqueters late-2nd century CE , Athenaeus describes a series of dinner parties at which the guests quote extensively from Greek literature.

    Silvae Statius Shackleton Bailey, D. On the Republic. The Encheiridion Epictetus Oldfather, W. Whitaker, G. On the Giants Philo Colson, F. Cornford, F. Consolation Ovid Mozley, J. Epistles Plato Bury, R. For the P Demosthenes Vince, J. Lysias Lysias Lamb, W. On Sobriety Philo Colson, F. Rendall, Gerald H. On Architecture, Volume I: Books Vitruvius Granger, Frank On Architecture , completed by Vitruvius sometime before 27 CE and the only work of its kind to survive antiquity, serves not professionals but readers who want to understand architecture.

    Fasti Ovid Frazer, James G. Callistratus, Descriptions Philostratus the Elder Philostratus the Younger Callistratus Fairbanks, Arthur Sixty-five descriptions, ostensibly of paintings in a gallery at Naples, are credited to an Elder Philostratus born c. Discourses Dio Chrysostom Cohoon, J. Tyrtaeus Solon Theognis Mimnermus The Greek poetry of the seventh to the fifth century BCE that we call elegy was composed primarily for banquets and convivial gatherings.

    Archilochus Semonides Hipponax The poetry of the seventh to the fifth centuries BCE that the Greeks called iambic seems connected with cult songs used in religious festivals, but its purpose is unclear. Select Letters Jerome Wright, F. Last edited: Nov 15, The fact that this rich and affluent civilization lacks Catholic Christianity would make it a target for continuous aggression from westward moving European adventurers. Well I reckon that if such a civilisation grew up although I personally doubt the Carthaginians had the technology to built ocean-going ships it would be fairly prosperous- the Carthagianians would bring the diseas of Europe early on so the Mesoamericans could become accustomed ot them or destroyed as OTL.

    Either way, I reckon that if left to stew without Rome etc. Or indeed, the Romans could copy Carthaginian designs as they did in the 1st Punic War and follow them. Now there's an idea, Rome and Carthage in the New World. Slightly ASB but a great idea! Historians are in dispute over whether or not Carthaginians and their Punic brethren sacrificed their offspring. Surviving records in the Punic language make no mention of it. And this one fella called Sergio Ribichini seems convinced that the Tophet was simply a cemetary for children whom died of natural causes. And the Carthaginians would need sturdier ships than Triremes and Quinqueremes to navigate the Atlantic.

    It would be possible Hawaii is the most isolated island in the world and its "natives" got there on canoes. For all their prospects, I can't see why they would frequently sacrifice their own children, or anyone elses. This is a really cool idea. What 'Europe'? The idea of any kind of pan-continental consciousness didn't emerge until the later days of the Roman Empire, and it wasn't until Charlemagne's time that sophisticated states started to emerge in Europe that didn't gravitate solely around the Mediterranean.

    If Carthage maintains western hegemony, then its not certain that the centre of geo-political gravity will ever drift north into Europe. Southern Europe will probably become heavily Punicised, and the rest of Europe will probably remain much more tribal for much longer than in OTL. Assuming an initial set of people from probably a single exodus. OK, so we reach carrying capacity first. So, that empire could cover both Americas and be densely populated They'd likely have iron, even if not e.

    Typo Banned Joined: Jul 3, Without constant contact with their homeland, there's a significant chance that even a sizable colonizing population will "go native", when Columbus-analogue comes along, they might just be another tribe with supposely mystical origins from a far-away land. That been said, it is possible the whole region's technology level gets boosted up to that of iron age Europe in some areas, that might have some effect on conquest of the area.

    But overall, the Carribean probably still fall to European invasions. Nov 16, Well with the problem of going native doesn't it beg the question of how large was the Arawak population of Cuba in BC? If it is immensly more than the Carthaginians then yes ofcourse its very likely and the Arawaks would likely just absorb a few customs and technologies of convenience such as the wheel.